The FE model was also capable of predicting the onset of short circuit of the cell. In: Journal of Power Sources S. The resulting ROM can predict the five variables of a standard porous-electrode model- reaction flux, solid and electrolyte lithium concentration, and solid and electrolyte potentials-at any location across the cell cross section, as well as cell terminal voltage. The method to generate the model involves first linearizing the porous-electrode-model equations, and then deriving closed-form Laplace-domain transfer functions from the lin- earized equations.
Next, the discrete-time realization algorithm DRA is used to convert the transfer functions into an optimal discrete-time state-space realization. Advantages of this approach include that the DRA avoids nonlinear optimization and gives a straightforward method for selecting the system order for the ROM. Simulation results dem- onstrate that the ROM cell voltage predictions and the ROM internal electrochemical variable predictions match very closely with results obtained by simulating the full nonlinear porous-electrode partial differential equations.
A global strategy which aims at providing an efficient method to minimize the energy consumption during the startup of a PEMFC is proposed. The overall control system is based on a supervisory architecture in which the Energy Management System EMS plays the role of the power flow su- pervisor. The EMS estimates in advance, the time to start the fuel cell FC based upon the battery energy usage during the trip.
Given this estimation and the amount of additional energy required, the fuel cell temperature man- agement strategy computes the most appropriate time to start heating the stack in order to reduce heat loss through the natural convection. As the cell temperature rises, the PEMFC is started and the reaction heat is used as a self- heating power source to further increase the stack temperature. A time optimal self-heating approach based on the Pontryagin minimum principle is proposed and tested. The experimental results have shown that the proposed ap- proach is efficient and can be implemented in real-time on FC-PHEVs.
In practical operation, a cooling plate is exposed to a range of operating conditions dictated by the battery, environment, and driving behaviour. This determines which operating conditions must be represented in the design process, and therefore the complexity of designing for multiple operating conditions. The objective of this study is to determine the influence of different operating conditions on the optimum cooling plate design.
Three important performance measures were considered: temperature uniformity, mean temperature, and pressure drop.
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It was found that of these three, temperature uniformity was most sensitive to the operating conditions, especially with respect to the distribution of the input heat flux, and also to the coolant flow rate. An additional focus of the study was the distribution of heat generated by the battery cell: while it is easier to assume that heat is gener- ated uniformly, by using an accurate distribution for design optimization, this study found that cooling plate perform- ance could be significantly improved.
Charge transfer process, one of the two differ- ent steps of the process of Li insertion in the negative active material being the cause of this ageing, was considered here to be the limiting process. This transfer occurs at short-time scales. The second process, the diffusion of lithium in the solid insertion compound, occurring at relatively long-time scales, has not been fully examined here. The aim of this paper was to develop a new method to evaluate the maximal rate of a charge pulse solicitation to prevent this ageing phenomenon. The approach relies on the use of a fundamental model of lithium ion battery with coupled mass and charge transfer.
Theoretical and experimental works led to the maximum current density to be applied without undesired Li depo- sition, depending on the state of charge SOC. The abacus established for the cell of interest can orient further specifications for suitable use of the battery. The test results of cell RVE specimens under in-plane constrained compression indicate that the load carrying behavior of the cell RVE speci- mens is characterized by the buckling, the kink and shear band formation, and the final densification of the cell com- ponents.
The test results suggest that the lithium-ion battery cells can be modeled as anisotropic foams or cellular materials. The elastic buckling analyses for a beam with lateral constraints indicate that the higher order buckling modes and the critical buckling stresses in general agree with those observed in experiments.
The elastic buckling analyses also justify the length selection of the cell RVE specimens. Finally, an idealized kinematic model is presented to explain the physical mechanisms of the kink and shear band formation in the cell RVE specimens un- der in-plane constrained compression. The establishment of the equivalent circuit model of the battery requires data preparation and parameterisation. Besides, as the equivalent circuit model is an abstract map of the battery electric characteristics, the determination of the possible ranges of parameters can be a challenging task.
In this paper, an efficient yet easy to implement method is proposed to parameterise the equivalent circuit model of bat- teries utilising the advances of evolutionary algorithms EAs. Differential evolution DE is selected and modified to parameterise an equivalent circuit model of lithium-ion batteries. The method can pa- rameterise the model without extensive data preparation. In addition, the approach can also estimate the initial SOC and the available capacity.
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The efficiency of the approach is verified through two battery packs, one is an 8-cell bat- tery module and one from an electrical vehicle. Power tests are carried out using the hybrid pulse power characterization HPPC method. Many of the existing Standards are designed to validate the fail safe function of the battery pack as opposed to assessing the mechanical durability of the complete system. If excessive vehicle warranty claims are to be avoided it is important that engineers tasked with the design of the battery installation properly understand the magnitude and frequency of the vibration inputs that the battery will be exposed too during the vehicle's predicted life.
The vibration characteristics of three different commercially available EVs have been experimentally evaluated over a wide range of different road surface conditions. For each vehicle, a durability profile has been sequenced to emulate the vibration energy that the battery pack may be exposed too during a representative , miles service life.
The primary conclusions from the results presented are that the battery packs may well be exposed to vibration loads outside the current evaluation range of existing Standards. Several Na-rich compounds have been proposed as positive electrodes, whereas suitable negative counterparts have not been found yet. Electrochemical reactions of Na and Li ions with nanostructured Fe2O3 are analysed and compared. Initial sodiation of Fe2O3 yields a sloping profile in a voltage range characteristic for oxide conversion, which instead generates a typical plateau upon lithiation.
Application of such earth-abundant, nontoxic material in upcoming Na-ion batteries is potentially groundbreaking, since it offers important advantages, namely: i. Variations in initial stack pressure, an important controllable manufacturing parameter, are shown to produce different stress evo- lution characteristics over the lifetime of the cells.
Cells manufactured with higher levels of stack pressure are found to exhibit shorter cycle lives, although small amounts of stack pressure lead to increased capacity retention over un- constrained cells. Postmortem analysis of these cells suggests a coupling between mechanics and electrochemistry in which higher levels of mechanical stress lead to higher rates of chemical degradation, while layer delamination is responsible for the capacity fade in unconstrained cells.
Localized separator deformation resulting in nonuniform lith- ium transport is also observed in all cells. Es besteht aus einer Hardware-in-the-Loop- Kopplung von mechatronischen Modellen mobiler Systeme mit einem realen Teststand. Die Batterieauslegung kann opti- miert werden, ebenso wie die elektrisch-mechanischen Eigenschaften des Prototypen. Zudem ist der prozessintegrierte Einsatz von Messsystemen notwendig. Drei Beispiele werden im Beitrag aufgezeigt. Um diesen Prozessschritt in einem Messschritt messtechnisch zu erfassen, bietet sich die Kombination von Kamerasystem und Laserlichtschnittsystemen an.
Hierbei kommt ein geschmolzener Elektrolyt zum Einsatz, dessen Wiederaufladbarkeit auf einem quasireversib- len Mechanismus beruht. Die Katode ist kompatibel mit vielen verschiedenen Elektronenanoden. This paper focuses on the optimal configuration of centralized charging stations CCSs under the condition of large-scale integration of PEVs into grid.
A mathematical model to formulate the optimal CCS placement problem is firstly established. Then the distribution discipline of CCSs in the optimum CCS configuration with mini- mum total transportation distance TTD is shed light on according to the mathematical model, and it in turn helps to identify the candidate CCS locations which turn out to be discrete, finite, fit for numerical calculation and reliable. Fi- nally a further optimization model within the searching space of these candidate CCS locations is proposed to identify the optimum CCS configuration, and solved by a modified binary particle swarm optimization BPSO based on Ta- boo mechanism TM.
A large number of numerical examples verify the correctness of the proposed strategy and the applicability of the modified BPSO in this study. As our privacy impact assessment of this protocol has shown, drivers may unnecessarily reveal details about their whereabouts to charging station and mobility operators. Using our PIA results, we designed modular enhance- ments of the protocol based on state-of-the-art PETs, showing that PET technology allows to implement comfortable and fully functional Authentication, Authorization and Accounting AAA for eMobility and electric vehicle charging without sacrificing privacy.
This claim was corroborated by a second PIA analysis and a prototype implementation. Of course this goes at a reduced privacy protection. Still it would allow an immediate introduction of better privacy protection to the cur- rent protocols and infrastructures. We have the hope that our work will provide a significant contribution to the introduction of privacy-preserving and still functional and convenient electric vehicle charging infrastructures. At the same time, it provides a lesson how today's PETs in combination with thor- ough PIA can be used to build and deploy privacy-enhancing systems that introduce only modest additional effort but fully retain system functionality and security.
However, high penetration of electric vehicles in to the grid may cause high peak loads at different times of the days.
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Using advanced metering and automatic chargers makes it possible to optimize the charging cost, and release generation capacities to provide sus- tainable electricity supply. Using an appropriate encouraging program is a simple way for vehicle owners to manage their energy consumption and shift the time of charging to proper time of the day; and therefore, to reduce their elec- tricity bill.
With these objectives, this paper proposes a new practical PHEVs' charging scheduling programs aiming at optimizing customers charging cost by considering the generation capacity limitation and dynamic electricity price in different time slots of a day. Using a stochastic model for start time of charging and the duration of it in the proposed optimization algorithm, make this method a practical tool for modeling the vehicle owners' charging behavior with the purpose of peak load shaving.
In addition, the methodology is useful for the detailed analysis required for smart grids. A formulation for the optimal power flow of an n-conductor system was developed using a primal-dual interior point method and the n-conductor current injection method in rectangular coordinates. Distribution and transmission sys- tems were analyzed to verify the generality and efficiency of the proposed methodology.
This paper presents an overall review of the model- ing, planning and energy management of the CCHP microgrid. The performance of a CCHP microgrid from the tech- nical, economical and environmental viewpoints are closely dependent on the microgrid's design and energy man- agement. Accurate modeling is the first and most important step for planning and energy management of the CCHP microgrid, so this paper first presents an review of modeling of the CCHP microgrid. With regard to planning of the CCHP microgrid, several widely accepted evaluation methods and indicators for cogeneration systems are given.
Research efforts on the planning methods of the CCHP microgrid are then introduced. Finally, the energy manage- ment of the CCHP microgrid is briefly reviewed in terms of cogeneration decoupling, control strategies, emission re- duction and problem solving methods. Specifically, a combined environmental and economic dispatch EED problem is formulated and solved, which is a non-trivial multi-objective optimization problem given the high number of agents, information exchanges and constraints associated to large-scale smart grids.
In this line, the work proposed herein adopts a dis- tributed Lagrange-based model predictive control with reduced computational demand making use of robust mixed- integer quadratic programming MIQP solvers. In addition, the model predictive control MPC nature of the frame- work accounts for renewable resource forecast while physical constraints are included in the formulation.
The DMPC is herein extended to calculate market-based on-line energy pricing while minimizing the generation cost and emis- sions,and to include hard and soft constraints and ramp rate limits. The aforementioned control framework is applied to a smart grid composed of 11 consumer centers, 6 energy storages, 11 generation systems and 31 transmission lines. These results show that DMPC can be considered as an alternative versus other heuristic methods, which do not guarantee an optimal solu- tion to the problem. Capacitor banks have long been used to provide voltage support and to correct displacement power factor on distribution network.
This paper presents a new approach for real time voltage control of distribution networks that has improvements over the conventional voltage control models. This approach will be active in emer- gency conditions where, in real time, the voltages in some nodes leave their permissible ranges.
In the proposed model, it is assumed that renewable distributed generations are integrated in the distribution system, and the com- munication infrastructure of smart grid has already been implemented. Unlike previous voltage control methods, the proposed approach does not need the load and renewable generation forecast data to regulate voltage. Moreover, the calculation time of the proposed approach is considerably reduced. The proposed voltage control algorithm is applied on two different models, and each presented model has a substantial improvement over previous models.
DSO can choose one of them based on a trade-off between cost and power quality index. To verify the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed control scheme, the developed voltage control scheme is tested on a typical distribu- tion network. The simulation results show that the proposed real time voltage control has the capability to maintain distribution voltage in specified ranges. Recent studies have demonstrated that La0.
To obtain a microscopic level understanding and control of such unusual enhancement, we implemented a novel combination of in situ scanning tunneling spectroscopy and focused ion beam milling to probe the local elec- tronic structure at nanometer resolution in model multilayer superlattices. Our results contribute to an improved un- derstanding of oxide hetero-interfaces at elevated temperatures and identify electronically coupled oxide structures as the basis of novel cathodes with exceptional performance.
The resulting nanocomposite delivered a discharge capacity of mAh g-1 at a current density of The excellent high rate capability was attributed to the improved electronic conductivity due to the intimate contact between nano-structured FePO4. The phase structure, morphology, and pore nature were characterized systematically.
When used as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries, the mesoporous Fe2O3 nanoparticles exhibit excellent cycling performance -1 -1 -1 mAh g at mA g up to cycles and rate capability reversible charging capacity of mAh g at mA g-1 during cycles. This research suggests that the mesoporous Fe2O3 nanoparticles could be suitable as a high rate performance anode material for lithium-ion batteries. The obtained LMNO was in a well-crystallized cubic phase with little impurity. It showed high rate capability and excellent cycling stability as a cathode material for lithium ion batteries.
Initial discharge capacities of The as-prepared LMNO is a promising cathode material for high power and long-life lithium ion batteries. In: Electrochemistry Communications 27 S. In: Electrochemistry Communications 28 S. Further improvement was achieved by the addition of 0. The complexed boron-peroxide ions can be electrochemically oxidized with much better kinetics than the oxidation of solid Li2O2 on a carbon powder microelectrode.
This discovery could lead to a new avenue for the development of high capacity, high rate, rechargeable, Li-Air batteries. Compared to normal TiO2 nanofibers, hollow TiO2 with higher surface area gave rises to a higher surface contribution and ensured a short diffusion path for ion transport. Thus hollow TiO2 demonstrated superior cyclic ability and excellent rate capability.
The amorphous TiS4 and acetylene black composites were discharged and -1 charged with a high reversible capacity of mAh g in the 1. The Coulombic efficiency of the composite was higher than that of a sulfur electrode because the dissolution of the polysulfide into electrolytes was suppressed. Amorphization and dispersion of carbon inside the particles were effective in improving the performance of the titanium polysulfide electrodes.
To our knowledge, this is actually the longest cycle life ever reported for an electrode material vs. We demonstrated that the capacity decay was attributed to the Mn deposited on the graphite electrode accelerating the electrolyte decomposition. While the Al2O3 coating on the positive electrode suppressed the Mn dissolution, we found that the Al2O3 coating on the negative electrode was counter-intuitively more beneficial and efficient in preventing the Mn deposition and achieving excellent capacity retention in lithium ion batteries.
In: Electrochemistry Communications 32 S. This synthesis process encapsulation is completed in a few minutes without a solvent drying step, thus it is easily scalable for volume production. The preliminary experimental results from X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy suggest that the TiO2 nanofibres were well-dispersed and interwoven by the CNTs, forming freestanding, bendable and light weighted composite.
In comparison with TiO2 nanofibre based LIBs, the CNTs could significantly improve the battery perform- ance due to their high conductivity property and 3D network morphology. In both V and 0. And the structure, morphology, electrochemical properties of prepared polymers were characterized by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy FTIR , scanning electron microscopy SEM , cyclic voltammograms CV and electrochemical impedance spectra EIS , respectively.
The results demonstrated that the introduction of ferrocene to polypyrrole obviously improved the specific capacity of PPy cathode and gave a well-defined plateau at the potential rang of about 3. Under our experimental conditions, the discharge capacity of undoped PPy-based -1 -1 electrodes only presented Specially, the P FcPy-co-Py -based electrodes even showed -1 a discharge capacity of This article reports the electro- chemical performance of a composite of polypyrrole PPy and nickel oxide NiO , in which another lithium storage material, polypyrrole-nickel-oxygen PPy-Ni-O coordination complex, was fabricated during initial galvanostatically discharging.
The strong and electrochemically stable coordination between the nickel and nitrogen atoms ensures the excellent electrochemical performances of the complex. These findings pave new ways to construct a new type of high-performance organic anode material for lithium ion batteries. When the current density is increased to , and mA g , it still maintains a capacity of , and mAh g-1, respectively.
Fur- thermore, the mesoporous structure of Co3O4 nanoparticles is available to the transfer of electrolyte. Our results demonstrate that CNTs reinforced Co3O4 nanocomposite could be a promising anode material for high capacity lith- ium-ion batteries. The electrochemical performances of the NGCNTs are evaluated by cyclic voltammograms and galvanostatic discharge-charge cycling. The improved performance of NGCNTs is attributed to the non-graphitic form, tubular morphology and cross-linked conducting networks.
Therefore, it is a potential anode material for lithium-ion battery. Es gibt vier Strategien, um bei der Fahrzeugentwicklung Leichtbau zu erzielen: 1. Werkstoffleichtbau, 2. Fertigungsleichtbau, 3. Formleichtbau und 4. Jedes der vier Punkte wird kurz diskutiert und ein Beispiel dazu beschrieben. Zunehmende Treibhausgase und abnehmenden Ressourcen verlangen jedoch langfristig einen breiter angelegten Ansatz, wie etwa Umweltbilanzen. Der ganzheitlich umweltgerechte Leichtbau ist dabei eine der wichtigsten Herausforderungen. Insbesondere durch die Nutzung bionischen Designs lassen sich Leichtbaustrukturen darstellen, bei denen Lastpfade und Wanddicken optimal an die Belastungen angepasst werden.
Die be- deutendste Innovation des Die Simulation macht die Gussferti- gung in jeder Hinsicht berechenbar. To be effective substitutes, cast lightweight metals must have similar properties and performance to their heavier counter-parts and comparable costs to manufacture. Castings tend to be inherently flawed with variable properties e. More precise knowledge of properties of castings can enable designs that reduce materials usage and weight.
Crash tests, test of deformation characteristics, as well as drive and continuous running tests, demonstrate conclusively that high safety demands made on the chassis compo- nents are met in full. In: Journal of Alloys and Compounds S. The resulting films are oxidized and examined in lithium test cells as potential anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. The changes in the film thickness on increasing deposition time and the crystallization phenomena on annealing the de- posits strongly affect the electrochemical behavior.
The present approach allows preparing a powder free electrode with improved coulombic efficiency directly on the current collector and opens a set of novel preparation routes in this field with intriguing results. Meanwhile, the content of graphene in composite is determined by thermogravimetric analysis TG. The scanning electron micros- copy SEM and transmission electron microscope TEM images both illustrate the effective combination of Fe2O3 particles and graphene.
The morphology and structure evolution of the hollow porous ZnMn2O4 spheres are well examined to achieve optimal electrochemical performance. The elec- trochemical performances of the nanocomposite were evaluated in coin-type cells. It delivers high reversible capacity of Even after cycles at mA g-1, the -1 -1 capacity still retains The im- proved electrochemical performance is ascribed to the strong interfacial interaction between CFC nanoparticles 30 nm and RGO nanosheets.
The selective interaction between solvent type and crystallographic planes of the metal ion is the key factor in morphological variations. The morphology and microstructure are studied by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Structural characterization of the materials has been carried out by X-ray diffraction and confirmed phase pure CoC2O4.
The critical dehydration process of CoC2O4. Electro- chemical properties of anhydrous CoC2O4 in half-cells are studied by cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge- discharge cycling, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The studies showed that initial discharge capacity -1 of anhydrous CoC2O4 nanorods and sheets is and mA h g , respectively, at 1C-rate.
Anhydrous CoC2O4 nanostructures fabricated by this chimie douce process achieved higher reversible capacity, more stable cycling, and better rate capabilities than reported. The electrochemical performances of anhydrous CoC2O4 nanostructures are found to be significantly influenced by morphology and porosity. In addition, the interfacial electrochemical mecha- nism related to the transitional metal oxidation states, phase structural changes, and distribution during cycling are validated.
The microsphere is the assembly of LiFePO4 nanoparticles with an open porous structure, thus the carbon coating can be easily introduced on the sur- face of the nanoparticles by the chemical vapor deposition of C2H4 during calcination process. The polyaniline particles are uniformly coated on the LiV3O8 nano- rods.
The composite with 12 wt. The charge transfer resistance of the composite electrode was much lower than that of the bare LiV3O8 electrode, indicating that polyaniline coating significantly increases the electrical conductivity between the LiV3O8 nanorods. Polyaniline is a conductive binder which buffers the dissolution of LiV3O8 into the electrolyte and reduces the contact resistance among nanorods, so performance of the composite is significantly improved.
In general, the discharge capacity and rate performance have been found to increase with the decreasing thickness of the b-axis. The X-ray diffraction pattern confirms the monoclinic structure with a space group of P The Li2FeSiO4 nanoparticle is coated by a very thin film of amorphous carbon, the carbon content is The Li2FeSiO4 electrode delivers an initial dis- charge capacity of mA h g-1, which is much higher than graphitic anodes. The electrode delivers a specific discharge capacity of about -1 -1 mA h g at the current density of mA g even after cycles.
Cd II was first ex- tracted The Co II present in the raffinate free acidity 4. Ni II was isolated from the raffinate as oxalate after addition of ammonium oxalate at pH 2. The positive effect of bias is shown allowing to minimize the presence of the cubic LiCoO2 phase. This constitutes remarkable performances both in terms of rate capability and cycling stability.
The charge-discharge behaviour as a function of the film thickness in the range 0. As a consequence an optimization of the capacity is proposed with the use of the thickest deposit of 3. The values of conductivity of these materials are comparable or even higher than those of Zr0. In order to evaluate the influence of the microstructure on the transport properties of apatite-type electrolytes, La10Si5.
Impedance spectroscopy was used to study separately both the bulk and grain boundary contributions from the overall conductivity.
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Arnoscht, S. Rudolf, K. Sihn, D. Palm, H. Gommel, W. Tober, C. Rost, J. Schuh, K. Pfeiffer, A. Schuh, A. Kampker, T. Vogels, C. Nowacki, R. Schmitt, M. Harding et al.
Neugebauer, L. Lachmann, W. Drossel, M. Nestler, S. Cherif, K. Modler, F. Adam, M. Brecher, M. Emonts, M. Dubratz, A. Storbeck, P. Beiter, S. Berner, M. Brenneis, W. Schmitt, P. Wulfsberg, P. Kohrs, S. Grimske, B. Modelling the Costs of Autonomous Logistics. Varandani, J. Schwartze, R. Karpuschewski, H. Pieper, M. Krause, J. Ghahremanpour, G. Lorenz, T. Bogner, I. Maier, M. Detert et al.