Fechas del Tzolkin o Calendario Ceremonial Maya (Spanish Edition)

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This is the day to polish your inner diamond. This solarclock pyramid of the mayancalendar lights up the featheredserpent during the springequinox and fallequinox It creates an illusion to symbolize the return of great leader kukulcan. So spectacular Definitely earned 7wondersoftheworld travellust wanderlust in cancun mexico buenosdias sabahalkhyr bomdia 7wonders - 4 days ago. K'uk means Quetzal bird in Mayan. This is the glyph for Quetzal, which is a beautiful tropical bird endemic to the Mayan region and venerated by the ancient Mayans.

Exploring Mayan history. Calendars have changed drastically mayancalendar Mexico - 4 days ago. When people think of the MayanCalendar , they mostly think of superstitions about the end of the world, but the structure of the Mayan calendar actually demonstrates a deep understanding of mathematics and astronomy. The achievements of these Mesoamerican astronomer-priests continue to inspire Latinx scientists today.

It means the revealing of that which was hidden. The Mayan calendar is telling us the same thing that the book of Revelations is telling us. Truth is rising to the surface and being revealed for all to see. The quantum light from the universe is illuminating all that has been hidden. THIS is what the ancients were prophesizing to us. The end of their dark corrupted world is coming, not ours. Ours is just beginning, and we are going through the initial stages that are painful for those who are comfortable living a lie.

This lie that many have been living is coming to light. We are transcending the past. Those who insist on living in the old Piscean world will have a difficult time adjusting to all this. Here it is Melbourne Friends This is a two-part series of workshops that aim to resurrect our experience of nature's cyclical changes and learn how to track a sacred count of days. Rather than being bogged down by the materialistic " - Time is Money" beat of the Gregorian Calendar, these two workshops look deeply into the current state of our mental connection with this false reality of schedules, payments and constant to-do's, and understand the that our month calendrical system is made up of uneven parts, causing us to live disharmoniously.

By activating and engaging into the Mayan Dreamspell, a time template transmission created by Jose Arguelles, we flow through the notion of the " - Time is Art" frequency, and move toward a more fluid way of using time to assist in bringing ourselves back into a sacred pulse, allowing us to sense the divine synchronicity of nature and life. It is strongly suggested to attend both workshops to have a full-spectrum understanding of this way of timekeeping.

Part II - Friday July 26th, pm - pm. Full address DM to booked participants only. Kindly DM to book and confirm your attendance and I will lock the space for you. This way of tracking is simpler, perfect in its form; perpetual, steady rolling and pulses naturally like a heartbeat. What to bring: - A journal and a pen - Warm wooly socks - A blanket - An open mind and a full heart! Part I - Saturday July 13th, pm - pm. In the first part of this series, which is the start of a NEW TZOLKIN SPIN, we will be discussing the basic elements of The Tzolkin - this revered calendrical count of Mayan origin, is considered to be a very powerful way of using natural time cycles to assist in attuning ourselves with the rhythm of the 13 tones and the 20 archetypal energies of creation from birth to enlightenment.

Love that everything falls into place! Welcome to the Trecena of 1 Cib!

The energy of Cib embodies our connection to the long history of life through evolution, through the millions of years that have elapsed and blessed our planet with the diversity of life we see today, and the sanctity of consciousness, free will and love. Cib also represents forgiveness, pardon, sin, and pleasure. It is the nagual of all faults and vices. But it also symbolizes gifts and Mother Earth, and is the nagual of the Earth itself. On Cib days, the Maya ask for forgiveness from their ancestors, for this is the time when they are listening and are favorably predisposed to hear our wishes and requests.

This is also a good day to manage harmony and discord. Good Monday!!! Today at skanda Yoga we have the energy of the White Wind enhances the conscious breath to build spirit, so we can communicate our truth. The breath is the most important aspect of yoga and life. By consciously bringing structure to the breath we can learn how to tame the mind. By liberating the breath we enhance the flow of the prana vayus, the vital winds, which enhances the bodies health and vitality.

The breath and the wind come and go with complete freedom, with no attachment, and they both can be playful, strengthening, or resisting. Ultimately, when we connect to the conscious breath we connect to the spirit of the higher self. This class focuses on vinyasa transitions, forward bends, hip-openers, and twists.

Portal day! Today is an excellent day to start that process. Breakfast fresh from the yard. Conoces Tu onda encantada del calendario Maya? Ven a la lectura personale con Lalita Dreamdancer, cada domingo a partir de las pm Donativo tulum tulumvibes tulumyoga ilovecoconamor tulumbreakfast healthytulum vegantulum vegetariantulum mayancalendar mayancalendartulum tarotreading tulumstyle bestspotintulum - 6 days ago. Feliz domingo!!! Disfruta tu vida de una manera que puedas sentirte feliz y agradecido Para mi eso es yoga!!

Todo es yoga bailar, correr, leer Happy Sunday!!! Keep those skin cells safe this summer! Safety first fun second friends! Summer Solstice Weekend - 7 days ago. Deskgram is a powerful tool for telling a visual story about your brand. After those prizes were announced, we had the announcements of the Gauss prize and the Chern medal.

The former is for mathematical work that has had a strong impact outside mathematics, and the latter is for lifetime achievement. I have one remark to make about the Fields medals, which is that I think that this time round there were an unusually large number of people who could easily have got medals, including other women. I have two words to say about them: Mikhail Gromov. To spell it out, he is an extreme, but by no means unique, example of a mathematician who did not get a Fields medal but whose reputation would be pretty much unaltered if he had. Other aspects of the ceremony were much as one would expect, but there was rather less time devoted to long and repetitive speeches about the host country than I have been used to at other ICMs, which was welcome.

That is not to say that interesting facts about the host country were entirely ignored. The final speech of the ceremony was given by Martin Groetschel, who told us several interesting things, one of which was the number of mathematics papers published in international journals by Koreans in Now Korea is 11th in the world for the number of mathematical publications. Of course, one can question what this really means, but it certainly means something when you hear that the answer to the question above is 3.

So in just one generation a serious mathematical tradition has been created from almost nothing. He also told us the names of the people on various committees. The idea is that the IMU will support researchers in developed countries who want to provide some kind of mentorship for graduate students in less developed countries working in a similar area who might otherwise not find it easy to receive appropriate guidance.

Or something like that. Ingrid Daubechies also told us about two other initiatives connected with the developing world. One was that the winner of the Chern Medal gets to nominate a good cause to receive a large amount of money. Anyhow, that order of magnitude. His repeated requests for short pithy questions were ignored. At one point some men in masks appeared, who looked like this. I think my six-year-old son might have felt the same way — he had to leave a pantomime version of Hansel and Gretel, to which he had been taken as a birthday treat when he was five, almost the instant it started, and still has those tendencies.

Download a free copy of the review here. Donaldson one of five to win most lucrative mathematics prize ever established. The Breakthrough prize in mathematics was established by Mark Zuckerberg founder of Facebook and Yuri Milner internet entrepreneur to encourage more widespread interest in the areas of science and mathematics. In a Guardian interview Donaldson said of his win: "I was quite taken aback. I haven't had any time to think what I'll do with the money. It's hard to say what impact the prizes will have because they are so new. But one hopes they'll increase the prominence of the subject in general.

You can find information about it here:. Mexico is a country rich with natural resources and an educated workforce. Yet its scientific output remains below its potential. In a focus issue we highlight some of Mexico's structural problems. A few days ago I received a request from a reader Thanks Paulo Zan for information about magnetic resonance. The request did not specify more than that so I took the liberty of deciding that perhaps the request was due to coming across the term before and as such it is quite possible that a lot of us would have heard of magnetic resonance in the context of MRI scans.

Other names include MRT or magnetic resonance tomography. MRI scanners use strong magnetic fields and radio waves to form images of the body. As I mentioned above, the full name should include the word nuclear because the physical phenomenon exploited by the scanner is actually the absorption and emission of electromagnetic radiation by nuclei in a strong magnetic field. The absorption and emission of energy related to the frequency of the radiation in question and depending on the properties of the atoms, certain frequencies cause larger oscillations.

Those frequencies are called resonance frequencies. An important feature of the phenomenon is that the resonance frequency of a particular substance is directly proportional to the strength of the applied magnetic field. In a lot of scanners the detectors pick up radio signals emitted by excited hydrogen atoms in the body remember that water is 2 parts hydrogen and 1 part oxygen. Due to the use of large magnets in the machines, the patients are required not to carry out metallic objects while in the same room as the scanner.


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A estas frecuencias las llamamos frecuencias de resonancia. When I first heard about the plans that the British Library had about an exhibitions called Science is Beautiful I got very excited. I did even make an entry in my diary about the date that it was planned to be opened. Closer to the time I even encourage Twitter followers and colleagues to go to the exhibition. I was very surprised they even call this an exhibition, the very few images, documents and interactive displays were very few and not very immersive.

Probably my favourite part was looking at " The Pedigree of Man " and the " Nightingale's Rose " together with an interactive show. Nonetheless, I felt that the British Library could have done a much better job given the wealth of documents they surely have at hand. Besides, the technology used to support the exhibits was not that great You can also read the review that Rebekah Higgitt wrote for the Guardian. It may sound like a line from Star Trek, but I can assure you that the creation of a beam made out of anti-hydrogen atoms is a real achievement carried out by scientists at CERN.

The work was reported in Nature Communications , and it could hopefully help answering the question about the patent lack of anti-matter we see on everyday life. In order to study anti-matter we would need a source of them, plus the anti-particles should live long enough to make useful measurements. It is not that anti-matter is not currently used, PET scans routinely employ positrons to take snapshots of patients bodies. But the prospect of having proper anti-matter atoms became a reality only about three years ago. At least 80 of the anti-atoms were detected, 2.

The next step is preparing exercises and finalising things. I'm aiming to finish things by May and in principle the book will be available from Novemeber or so. The whole process does take a while but I am really looking forward to seeing the finished thing out there. So, what triggered this post? Well, I have seen the appearance of a site with the book announced. I am not sure if these are usual practices but in any case it is a good thing, don't you think? A few days ago I got a message from my mate Jorge Soto The question is related to the conversion of magnetic energy into electrical one and whether the process can be achieved in places such as the Van Allen radiation belt.

So, lets us take this by parts: First the magnetic to electric energy conversion. Well, according to the first law of thermodynamics energy cannot be "created or destroyed", but we can indeed convert it from one from to another one. It turns out that we can use some kinetic energy to move, say, a magnet.

In turn this kinetic energy can be converted to electrical energy thanks to the properties of electromagnetism, in particular to the so-called Faraday's law. Faraday discovered that, when moving a permanent magnet into and out of a coil of wire, an electrical current was induced in the wire while the magnet was in motion. Now, to the Van Allen radiation belt: the belt is part of the Earth's magnetosphere. Ok, ok The magnetosphere is the part of space near a celestial object in which charged particles are controlled by the magnetic field generated by the object itself.

In order to convert magnetic energy to electrical, as mentioned above, we requiere the magnetic field to be in movement or vary. Not an easy task However, one can perhaps take advantage of the variations of the magnetic field. The field is not constant: currents in the ionosphere and disturbances from Earth's interior produce slow daily variations in the field with amplitudes of some 25 nanotesla nT , and superimposed on these are further oscillations with periods of a few seconds and amplitudes of about 1 nT. Or in other terms we would get about 3 one-billionth's of a volt per square meter of flux In the paper, the authors mention that positivity ratios above 2.

It turns out the this paper has recently been refuted and even partially withdrawn thanks to the judicious eye of Nicholas Brown, a part time graduate student from the University of East London who was able to see through the great misuse of mathematics. Brown was supported by Alan Sokal , an outspoken critic of postmodernism and professor of physics at New York University; and Harris L Friedman a clinical psychologist from Saybrook University and the University of Florida.

The Observer newspaper mentions that Fredrickson and Losada were given the opportunity of responding to the refutal… Only Fredrickson took the opportunity up. According to the Observer. But she refused to accept that the rest of the research was flawed. Keeping up with the well-established tradition of year-end lists, here is one from Nature's blog:. Once again Google puts out a doodle worth mentioning. This time they celebrate the th birthday anniversary of computer scientist Grace Hopper.

She then obtained a master's degree at Yale in and a PhD in She continued to work at Harvard until when she joined the Eckert-Mauchly Computer Corporation as a senior programmer. Hopper continued to serve in the navy until when she was the oldest commissioned officer on active duty in the United States Navy. Born on December 3rd years ago, Carlos Juan Finlay is the man who came up with the theory that yellow fever was spread by mosquitoes. Glad to see that a Google Doodle can help with letting people know about this important Cuban scientist. Finlay's research on cholera and yellow fever didn't initially get much support.

He suggested that yellow fever was carried by mosquitos and he suggested that cholera was waterborne. His work was proven later by the Walter Reed Commission and in Finlay became the chief health officer in Cuba. This confirmation paved the way for the eradication of yellow fever, creating the chance to save thousands of lives. Immediately following the film's airing in , an article on HeLa cells, Lacks, and her family was published by reporter Jacques Kelly in The Baltimore Sun.

He notes:. Any reviewer with more than a high-school knowledge of chemistry and the ability to understand a basic data plot should have spotted the paper's short-comings immediately. Its experiments are so hopelessly flawed that the results are meaningless. Nevertheless, journals, out of the that provided a decision to the author's nom de guerre , accepted the paper. As Bohannon indicates:. Acceptance was the norm, not the exception. The paper was accepted by journals hosted by industry titans Sage and Elsevier Note: Bohannon also mentions Wolters Kluwer in the report. The paper was accepted by journals published by prestigious academic institutions such as Kobe University in Japan.

It was accepted by scholarly society journals. This operation, termed a 'sting' in Bohannon's story, ostensibly tested the weaknesses, especially poor quality control exercised, of the Peer Review system of the Open Access publishing process. Bohannon chose only those journals which adhered to the standard Open Access model, the author pays if the paper is published. When a journal accepted either the original, or a revised superficially, retaining all the fatal flaws version, Bohannon sent an email requesting to withdraw the paper citing a 'serious flaw' in the experiment which 'invalidates the conclusion'.

As noted by some scientists and Open Access publishers like Hindawi whose journals rejected the submission, the poor quality control evinced by this sting is not directly attributable to the Open Access model. A scientific journal that doesn't perform peer review or does a shoddy job of it is critically detrimental to overall ethos of scientific publishing and actively undermines the process and credibility of scientific research and the communication of the observations thereof, regardless of whether the journal is Open Access or Pay-for-Play.

And that is one of the major criticisms of this report. I agree. This report cannot highlight any kind of comparison between Open Access and subscription-based journals. The answer to that would seem to be an obvious 'No', especially given the outcome of this sting. But then it would beg the follow-up question, if this had indeed been a serious and genuine paper, would the author in this case, Bohannon seek out obscure OA journals for publishing it?

Eisen's blog, rather than criticizing the Open Access model, the most obvious solution to ameliorate this kind of situation seems to be to institute a measure of quality assessment for Open Access journals. I am not an expert in the publishing business, but surely some kind of reasonable and workable metric can be worked out in the same way Thomson Reuters did all those years ago for Pay-for-Play journals?

She wrote:. We include all peer reviewer names and their comments with all papers, so you can see exactly who looked at a paper and what they said. He wrote:. If a nakedly bogus paper is able to get through journals that actually peer reviewed it, think about how many legitimate, but deeply flawed, papers must also get through.

But the way to fix this is not to curtain open access publishing. It is to fix peer review. I couldn't agree more. Even those who swear by peer review must acknowledge that the peer review system, as it exists now, is not a magic wand that can separate the grain from the chaff by a simple touch. Has that ever stemmed the bilge it churns out on a regular basis? But the other question that really, really bothers me is more fundamental: As Bohannon notes, " about one-third of the journals targeted in this sting are based in India — overtly or as revealed by the location of editors and bank accounts — making it the world's largest base for open-access publishing; and among the India-based journals in my sample, 64 accepted the fatally flawed papers and only 15 rejected it.

How and when did India become this haven for dubious, low quality Open-Access publishing? I was listening last week to the "More or Less" podcast with Tim Harford, which by the way is one of my favourite Radio 4 programmes and I highly recommend it. In the programme they were discussing the proposal of Mr Nick Clegg, the UK's Deputy Prime Minister, to offer free school lunches to all pupils at infant schools.

As usual, not all is what it seems and the programme goes on to discuss this. I'm afraid is the old adage of correlation and causation In any case, the commentators in the programme made a reference to the Hawthorne effect, and although Tim Harford mentioned something about this I ended up with the curiosity to find out more about it. You might think that this is similar to the quantum mechanical observer affecting the system they observe, except that in this case the system is patently aware of the influence of the observation.

I would leave it at that So, who knows, perhaps the pupils, parents and teachers did indeed change their behaviour while the study was taking place Oh well I have finally had some time to catch up with the brand new Observer Tech Monthly magazine , a very welcomed addition to the fine Guardian and Observer newspapers.

So, there I was, reading about Paul Mason and his tech , and how the body clock works. All great, except OK, at least one of them is incorrect , but that it enough to redefine the entire electromagnetic theory. The correct set of Maxwell's equations reduce in that case to:. In any case, note the last two equations I wrote above. Can you see the difference between them and the ones depicted in the newspaper article? I wonder what sort of electromagnetic phenomena could be observed by the redefined equations in the Observer Among other things he is credited with making an early measurement of the speed of light.

Foucault was born in Paris in , where he initially studied medicine but soon switched to physics hurray! The plane of motion of the pendulum with respect to the earth, rotated slowly clockwise. This is a re-blog of the original entry by Peter Rowlett in the Aperiodical blog. More generally, I asked what other apps might be useful to my job and for other uses I should be thinking about.

Thanks to all who responded. Here is a summary of the recommendations I received. Since most of it is free that should be easy to do. Reblogged from The Endeavour by J. The Airy functions Ai x and Bi x are independent solutions to the differential equation. The SciPy function airy computes both functions, and their first derivatives, at once.

I was talking to some students the other day actually The discussion moved into what the importance was for Eigenvectors and thus Eigenvalues. They could not answer, other than So I decided to do an entry here about why we are interested in these things other than to pass the exam Let me start by the origin and meaning of the word Eigen: it comes from German and it is a prefix that can be translated as "proper", "own", "particular".

That perhaps hints at the mathematical meaning, which could be even translated as "characteristic", which was first used by David Hilbert I believe Some times Eigenvectors are thus called "Proper Vectors" although that is not my personal preference. That part is fine and we can compute these quantities , but why are we interested in this? Well, it turns out that many applications in science and engineering rely on linear transformations , which in turn use Eigenvectors and Eigenvalues.

A linear transformation is a function between two vector spaces that preserves the operations of addition and scalar multiplication. In simpler terms, a linear transformation takes, for example, straight lines into straight lines or to a single point, and they can be used to elucidate how to stretch or rotate an object, and that is indeed useful. So, where do Eigenvectors and Eigenvalues come into place? Well, they make linear transformations easier to understand. Eigenvectors can be seen as the "directions" along which a linear transformation stretches or compresses , or flips an object, whereas Eigenvalues are effectively the factors by which such changes occur.

In that way, Eigenvalues characterise important properties of linear transformations, for example whether a system of linear equations has a unique solution, and as described above, it can also describe the physical properties of a mathematical model. Do you want a concrete example in which this is used on daily life? Well, have a look at PageRank used by Google I could not help smiling widely as I was leaving that shop earlier on today Well, I was there to buy some bits and pieces.

I arrived listening to some music and once inside the shop I hang my headphones around my neck. When I approached the counter the following conversation happened:. It's very funny". Time flies, time is money, time is a wise counsellor, time is relative, time is It seems to be very natural to acknowledge the passing of time, however when we take a moment to think about its meaning, we quickly find ourselves with a few problems.

We start by arguing that time can be defined by the interval between two successive events and thus we need a ruler to measure that interval. This is indeed a quest that us humans have pursued since the dawn of civilisation; it is very easy to see how the definition of day comes about: it is the interval between two successive sunrises. Once we have this in place a lot follows effortlessly: on the one hand we can start taking smaller intervals and define hours, minutes, seconds, and on the other, it is now possible to refer to events taking place in the past, the present and even the future.

The ordering of these three concepts is intuitive as time flows from the past to the future, and we even see it manifested in the objects around us. We can imagine that we go to a museum where a film installation is being shown. The film starts with a large red stain in an otherwise immaculately white carpet. The camera spans and we see some pieces of glass strangely being attracted to each other while the red stain starts to shrink.

The next thing we see is a wine glass appear before our eyes and wine droplets jump into it as if by magic. This directionality is often referred to as the arrow of time and whenever it is discussed the subject of causality arises, and even time travel. When I mention causality I am referring to the relationship between causes and effects; in the case of the film I used as an example, the cause of the spill is shown to us as artist hits the wine glass. When the film is shown in reverse, we tangibly notice that there is something missing: the glass cannot "unbreak" out of its own accord.

What does physics have to say about this? If we were to analyse the film using the laws of motion described by Newton, we would find that there is no difference between the forward and backward directions. In other words, time reversal is not prohibited anywhere in Newtonian mechanics. This means that, given a present state under specific conditions, we are therefore able to predict the future, but also retrodict the past, as there is no distinction between the two.

This sounds surprising as this sort of thing does not happen in our daily lives. Scientists have come up with their own versions of the wine glass film described above. In one case, they have taken two particles of light, known as photons, with certain energies and mashed them together; after the collision they observed a pion and a deuteron as a result of the collision. Do not be too concerned about what these two new particles are, this will not affect the discussion.

When the film is reversed, it shows a pion and a deuteron colliding and producing as a result two photons. This new experiment has been realised and lo and behold the physicists observed the generation of the two photons as predicted, giving them a confirmation that the laws that govern these phenomena do not change when time is reversed. As you may have noticed, we have blatantly ignored the present, and this is because we think of it as a transitory state between the past and the future.

In other words, the past is gone while the future has not arrived, and the ephemeral present expires as soon as we try thinking of it. From this point of view, the result of these experiments seems to indicate that the arrow of time is embedded in our perception. It has been argued that the arrow of time is a psychological effect, and that this feeling that time flows mercilessly from the past to the future is all subjective. Let us take these arguments a step further, if indeed there is no difference between past and future, then there is nothing stopping us from travelling to the future as we imminently do or to the past as we clearly are not.

Believe it or not, but physics has something to tell us about this. I mentioned above that time reversal is allowed by Newtonian mechanics, so why can we not put together again the wine glass by time reversing the process, rather than supergluing the broken pieces? The answer is not in the realm of mechanics, but in that of thermodynamics, in other words the study of how energy converts between heat and other forms of energy. In that manner, physicists also talk about a thermodynamic arrow of time , in the sense that a given physical system invariably becomes ever more disordered, and since disorder is therefore important we quantify it with a quantity called entropy.

This rule that tells us that entropy increases with time is known as the second law of thermodynamics. Following this line of thought, we are not allowed to fix our broken wine glass by running time backwards because it would imply going from a more disordered state to a more ordered one without using any extra energy, and so travelling to the past is not an easy task to achieve. What about travelling to the future, or in the direction pointed by entropy? Well, in that case there is certainly nothing that stops us in our tracks.

In fact, as I pointed out earlier on, we are already travelling to the future, and we do that at a pace of sixty minutes an hour. However, if we wanted to travel to the future at a different rate, Einstein's theory of relativity gives us a recipe to achieve this. In the so-called special theory of relativity the world has four dimensions: the usual three space dimensions that we know and love, i. In other words, when you walk from one place to another in the gallery where the wine glass video is being shown, you automatically change your position on the time coordinate, even if you don't notice.

Einstein tells us that if we were to travel at the speed of light, time expands from the perspective of a stationary observer, whereas space contracts from the point of view of the moving person. This brings into question the notion of simultaneity, as two events that seem to happen at the same time for the stationary person, could in principle happen at different times from the point of view of the moving person. The effect of time dilation has been experimentally confirmed with very precise caesium clocks.

Unfortunately, it is completely outside of human experience, because we have not yet devised a way of travelling at speeds where relativistic effects become noticeable. Even if we were to spend our entire lives in a plane that moves at supersonic speed, we would barely win a second over our contemporaries on the ground. So, time travel as presented to us in sci-fi films is not yet possible but that has not stopped us from imagining its consequences. As for the definition of time, I am sure that there are many other things that can be said on the subject.

Unfortunately, time is a merciless master, and that is all the time and space I have for now. I still think it is hilarious Just like buses That is exactly what I thought when I heard about the two results in number theory that came up almost at the same time. So what are these things? Some attribute the conjecture to the Greek mathematician Euclid of Alexandria, which would make it one of the oldest open problems in mathematics.

The new result therefore shows that there are infinitely many pairs of primes that are less than 70 million units apart without relying on unproven conjectures. It may seem that 70 million is way to large a number, not compared to infinity! Keeping with prime numbers, they are indeed of much interest as they can be seen as the "atoms of arithmetic" as other number can be expressed as factorisation of prime numbers.

In that sense, prime numbers are intimately related to multiplication, but there are additive properties that they do have. You can have a look at his paper entitled "Major arcs for Goldbach's problem" here. I agree with the points made by Ian as well as others see here and here. I find it quite offensive to the scientific and science communication communities to make it illegal to use the term Christmas Lecture if you happen to organise an event where a lecture will be given during the Christmas period I suppose people will have to start organising Yuletide Disquisitions I have been meaning to write this post for a while, but for one reason or another or rather many reasons I had not been able to.

Right, so what has triggered this post?

Well, I was having a look at a the BFI website as they usually have some very good films and event to attend and I happened to come across some news about Film Nation's new programme on film education. You can have a look at the website here. Did you click on the link? Have you seen the title of the news item? If not, please take a look at the screenshot I include in this post. That is right! They describe the new programme as a "quantum leap for film education". I believe they want to imply that the programme is a great advancement, but I am not sure that describing it as a "quantum leap" conveys what they want.

It is rather sad to see this sort of misuses and that is why I am writing this post. So, a quantum is indeed a unit: it is the smallest amount of energy that a system can gain or lose, and this actually contradicts the message they want to communicate. The term "quantum" started being used in the early s by Max Plank as part of a theory to explain the physics of the sub-atomic world.

As such, light was thought as a tiny packet of energy as well as a wave As such a quantum leap is the smallest possible change in the energy level of that electron, and one that can take place at random. So, who knows, perhaps the BFI as well as others out there do mean indeed to use "quantum leap" to describe these achievement Or what do you think? Let me know and if you have any similar terms that get misused get in touch. Read me Have you ever wondered how Albert Einstein sounded? Well here you have an opportunity to find out.

In the link above there is a recording of Einstein reading an essay in English called "The Common Language of Science". I was planning to post this yesterday, but for one thing or another I forgot… Anyway, yesterday Nicolaus Copernicus would have been celebrating his th birthday. Copernicus is well known for Heliocentrism, i. At the time he proposed his idea without the aid of any equipment and he was of course branded as a heretic along the way. It was not until Galileo used his new telescope that the idea was proved right… The acceptance of which would take longer, and in the meantime Galileo would as well be called a heretic too….

I was therefore quite pleased to see the doodle that Google used yesterday to commemorate Copernicus. The doodle shows the planets of the Solar system orbiting their parent star. Happy birthday Copernicus. As the parent of teenage boys who have to be dragged out of bed on school days, I had been looking forward to earlier sunrises once the winter solstice was past. But early January mornings seemed darker than ever while at the same time, the sky was clearly lighter around 5 p.

It turned out that what I suspected was actually true — by Jan. It also turned out that the reasons for it were complicated, as I discovered in a series of phone and e-mail conversations with Jay M.

Pasachoff, a professor of astronomy at Williams College, and a former student of his, Joseph Gangestad, who received his Ph. Pasachoff said. It appears farther south and travels a shorter arc across the sky, affecting sunrise and sunset equally, and making the day shorter. The changes in the solar time follow a different cycle.

For Earth, perihelion comes a little after the winter solstice, so from November on, Earth is accelerating. That shift is amplified because the Sun is traveling a little south each day, while clocks only count its east to west traverse. Add it all together and you get sunrise and sunset times that are not symmetrical. In the weeks before the winter solstice, sunrise is being pushed later by both the changing angle of the Sun and the slowing of solar time.

The result is more darkness in the morning and less in the afternoon. After the solstice, Earth continued its acceleration until reaching perihelion on Jan. So the sunrise continued to slide, reaching its latest point, a. There it stood until Jan. By Feb.

Gangestad said. That is, we would never notice it if we all just used sundials. The upshot is that the modules used to make solar-power plants now cost less than a dollar per watt of capacity. This means that in sunny regions such as California, photovoltaic power could already compete without subsidy with the more expensive parts of the traditional power market. See full article in the Economist.

You are getting ready for the New Year's party and cannot help to use a mirror to check that all is spot on. The tie is straight, the hair is tamed, the shoes are polished but wait Why, you ask, do mirrors reverse right and left but not up and down? Well, the answer is that they do not do either of them.

They reverse front to back The image that you see in front of you has not been swapped, but inverted along the axis of the mirror. So the answer to this question can be understood with looking at how light gets reflected. If we consider a light source, its rays will bounce off various parts of your body, they will reflect off the mirror and will be caught by your eyes; plus we know consider that for all intents and purposes light travels in a straight line.

What you will perceive is that you see your right hand in the place of the left one. And notice that it is a matter of perception Now, try the following: position yourself looking North and place the mirror in front of you. Now point at something East with your right hand, you will see that the hand in the mirror will also point East; the same happens if you point West with your left hand. So the directions are fine: East is East and West is West. But look at your nose, it points North, right? What about the nose in the image?

Well, it points South! The image is reverted front to back. I know that strictly speaking there should not be an entry for December 25th in the Sci-advent, but to tell you the truth I could not help myself and decided to do one more. The name Parthenos appears for instance in Greek mythology in the story of the daughter of Apollo and Chrysothemis , who died a maiden and was placed among the stars as the constellation of Virgo fittingly enough One method of parthenogenesis involves sex cell division and recombination, while another just produces an egg with a full complement of DNA.

All known living organisms have their genetic information encoded in a molecule called deoxyribonucleic acid or DNA. Genetic information is encoded as a sequence of four nucleotides : guanine G , adenine A , thymine T , and cytosine C recorded using the letters G, A, T, and C. Element 22 was named after the Titans - sons of the Earth - in Greek mythology. Titanium was discovered by William Gregor in in Cornwall, England and it is the ninth most abundant element in the Earth's crust.

It is found in minerals such as rutile, ilmenite and sphene.

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Pure titanium was first produced in by Matthew A. It is resistant to corrosion and does not react with the human body; it is paramagnetic and has a low electrical and thermal conductivity. Due to its characteristics it is used in a number of components that are exposed to sea water. In alloys it is used in airplanes and rockets, and in implants such as artificial hips, pins and other biological implants. Titanium oxide TiO 2 is used as a pigment to create white paint and accounts for the largest use of the element.

Titanium tetrachloride TiCl 4 , another titanium compound, has been used to make smoke screens. Pure titanium oxide is relatively clear and is used to create titania, an artificial gemstone. We have seen how light could be described in terms of a wave , as demonstrated by the double-slit experiment. Nonetheless, that is not the whole story. The electroscope lost its charge very slowly. However, if the zinc plate was exposed to ultraviolet light, charge leaked away quickly. The leakage did not occur if the plate was positively charged.

By , J. The more powerful oscillating field ejected more electrons, but the maximum individual energy of the ejected electrons was the same as for the weaker field. In photoemission, one such quantum is absorbed by one electron. If the electron is some distance into the material of the cathode, some energy will be lost as it moves towards the surface. The most energetic electrons emitted will be those very close to the surface, and they will leave the cathode with kinetic energy.

Just Received

This explanation was successful and validates the interpretation of the behaviour of light as particles. One very prominent application of the photoelectric effect is solar energy produced by photovoltaic cells. These are made of semi-conducting material which produce electricity when exposed to sunlight. Por ejemplo [8, 14, 3; 1; 12] representa. El Tzolkin era un calendario ritual, mientras que el Haab era civil; el Wayeb era considerado de "mala suerte".

Esta fecha puede ser tomada como el cero de la llamada "Cuenta Larga". Esto se traduce en. The Mayas are one of greatest human civilisations.

Popol Vuh // Space Mother Ship // End Of Maya Calendar

It is said that they had predicted the "end of the world", but I would like to think of it as the end and beginning of a calendar cycle. Not so different from the arbitrary December 31st in our calendars In order to understand the Mayan calendar cycle, we need to know a bit about their number system, which is a vigesimal system, i. They used three basic number symbols, a shell for zero, a dot for 1 and a line for 5. Also of note is that they were one of the earliest civilizations anywhere in the world to have the concept of zero.

In the Mayan system the numbering starts in that way with the units up to 19 and the 20s up to 19, but it changes in the third place and this denotes the number of 's up to For example [ 8;14;3;1;12 ] represents. Now, to the calendar: the calendar was truly behind the number system and vice versa. The Tzolkin was a ritual calendar, while the Haab was a civil one and the Wayeb was considered "unlucky".

Astronomy also played an important role for instance, Mayan astronomers calculated Venus ' synodic period after which it has returned to the same position to be days. In two 52 year cycles, Venus would have made 65 revolutions and be back to the same position. A part from those calendars, the Mayas had another way of measuring time using an absolute scale base on a "creation date and time" often taken to be 12 August BC but of course that is a matter of debate. This date can be taken as t the zero of the so-called "Long Count".

The Long Count is based on a count of days represented in the Mayan number system. It translates to. On December 21, , the 14th Baktun starts with the representation [ The double-slit experiment is one of the most famous experiments in physics and one with great implications in our understanding of Nature. Although the experiment was realised originally with light, it can be done with any other type of wave. Thomas Young conducted the experiment in the early s.

Each slit, diffracts the light and thus each acts as an individual light source. When a single slit was open, the light hit a screen with a maximum intensity in the centre and fading away from it. Although the experiment favours the wave-like description of light, that is not the whole story. This interpretation is at odds with phenomena where light can behave as it is composed of discrete particles, such as the photoelectric effect.

Light exhibits properties of both waves and particles, giving rise to the concept of wave-particle duality used in quantum mechanics. We are well acquainted with some optical phenomena such as reflection an refraction; simply take a look at an object half-submerged in a glass of water. But light has other many other trick under its sleeve. One very useful trick is total internal reflection. As the name suggests, this phenomenon happens when a ray of light incides in a medium boundary at a very particular angle known as the critical angle with respect to the normal to the surface.

If the refractive index is lower on the other side of the boundary the light cannot pass through and instead it is all reflected, as if it had hit a perfect mirror. Total internal reflection is widely used I the operation of optical fibres and devices such as endoscopes and in telecommunications, rain sensors in cars and some multi-touch displays.

Saturn is well-know by its rings and it cannot be denied that they are a feature that makes of this planet an intriguing world. The hexagon is 25, km 15, miles across. In fact, you could nearly fit four Earth-sized planets there. The hexagon appears to have remained fixed with Saturn's rotation rate and axis since first glimpsed by Voyager. The actual reason for the pattern in the storm is still a matter of speculation.

In a past post I mentioned the serendipitous discovery of an encrypted message attached to the leg of a pigeon. Well, it seems that a Canadian citizen has managed to do the impossible and cracked the code. How did he do it? Well, it seems that he was able to do it with the help of a code book inherited. So what is the content of the most secret of messages? Here are the alleged contents of the message:. Is this what the message say? What do you think? If is said that if a cell is the building block of life, then a transistor is the building block of the digital era.

Without them a lot of the gadgets, gizmos and technology we use today will simply not be there. The fact that the switch can change between on and off makes it possible to implement binary calculations. In today's complex computers there are several thousands, even millions of transistors. Lasers have become so common that the number of applications they have do not surprise us. Nonetheless, their characteristics still captivate all of us. Laser is an acronym of Light Amplification by the Stimulated Emission of Radiation and it is indeed a very descriptive name.

A laser consists of three main elements: a gain medium, an energy source and a device to provide feedback to the system. The amplification of the electromagnetic radiation is done by gain medium. This is possible by pumping energy to the system and thus generating stimulated emission. It is very common for typical lasers to use feedback from an optical cavity , such as a pair of mirrors at each end of the gain medium.

Laser light is characterised by properties such as monochromaticity, coherence and power. One may think that anti-matter features only in theoretical physics textbooks or in sci-fi devices , nonetheless it is very much in current use. Positrons are the anti-particle of electrons and their existence was proposed theoretically by Paul Dirac in and they were observed experimentally a year later. Nowadays positrons have a number of applications, including medical imaging.

The positron travels in tissue for a short distance, losing kinetic energy until it is able to interact with an electron. The positron-electron interaction annihilates the pair generating gamma rays which are detected by the scanner. Finally the images are built with the aid of computers. In the eventful experiment, Peltier joined a copper and a bismuth wires together and connected them to each other, then to a battery. When he switched the battery on, one of the junctions of the two wires got hot, while the other junction got cold.

The Peltier effect is the heat exchange that results when electricity is passed across a junction of two conductors, and is a close relative of the Seebeck effect effectively the same phenomenon in reverse, used in thermocouples used to measure temperature , and the Thomson effect generation of electricity along a conductor with a temperature gradient. Sparing ourselves the maths, conduction electrons have different energies in different materials, and so when they are forced to move from one conductor to another, they either gain or lose energy.

This difference is either released as heat, or absorbed from the surroundings.

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When two conductors are arranged in a circuit, they form a heat pump, able to move heat from one junction to the other. In most systems, this swamps the Peltier effect, and means that all that you get is a bit more heating at one junction, and a bit less heating at the other. Nonetheless, the Peltier effect has a lot of technological potential. It is very reliable, and since it has no moving parts, it rarely needs maintenance while being mobile. Materials that respond to the application of a magnetic field are described as magnetic materials. Magnetism can be attractive paramagnetism or repulsive diamagnetism.

Some materials are permanent magnets, this mess that their magnetic fields are persistent and they are caused by ferromagnetism. Magnetic phenomena are closely related to electricity: a magnetic field can be created by moving electric charges. Electromagnetic radiation, such as light, is a form of energy emitted and absorbed by charged particles. It can exhibit a wave-like behaviour as it propagated through space. It is possible to map the magnetic field of an object by measuring the strength and direction of the field at various locations.

By following the arrows drawn you end up with field lines for the field. A map of this sort can be visualised, for instance, by doing a very simple experiment involving a magnet bar and some iron filings see image above. A periodic table by Prof. Sheehan of the University of Santa Clara that claims to show the elements according to relative abundance at the Earth's surface. Dmitri Mendeleev published a first version of the periodic table in The table was developed to illustrate periodic trends in the properties of the then-known elements, which are presented in order of increasing atomic number.

This allowed Mendeleev to predict some properties of elements that were unknown at the time. Mendeleev's periodic table has since been expanded and refined with the discovery or synthesis of further new elements. Spiders and their webs are an excellent example of a predator, but can you enslave a spider? Well it seems that a species of wasp has mastered the art.

The unsuspected spider is instructed by the parasite to leave its web behind and start building a new one with a very different architecture that will serve as a nest to nurse the larva of the wasp. The new web has a thick cover and a lower platform where a cocoon hangs. The cover protects the cocoon from rain for instance. Once the wasp hatches it then has the zombie spider as a first meal Today 10th of December, it would have been her th birthday.

That is why Google created a doodle for her see image below. Ada Lovelace is today known as a mathematician and computer pioneer; she created the concept of an operating system. Supplementing her translation of an Italian article on Babbage's analytical engine with an encoded algorithm she published the first computer program, albeit for a machine that would not be built until more than years later as a historical project.

The Ada computer language was named after her. He presented the BBC programme The Sky At Night for over 50 years, making him the longest-running host of the same television show ever. The first programme was on April 24th, Sir Patrick's last appearance was last Monday, December 3rd, He wrote dozens of books on astronomy and his research was used by the US and the Russians in their space programmes.

Total solar eclipse over the Marshall Islands in Picture by Vojtech Rusin. A solar eclipse happens when, as seen from the Earth, the Moon passes in front of the Sun and thus blocking it either fully or partially. This can happen only at new moon, when the Sun and the Moon are in conjunction as seen from Earth. Scientific knowledge is built by building up on hypotheses and theories, repeatedly check them against observations of the natural world and continue to refine those explanations based on new ideas and observations.

Andy Reagan has recently published a blog post entitled " What's the most important theorem? The LHC was built in collaboration with over 10, scientists and engineers from over countries, as well as hundreds of universities and laboratories. Much of the complex would naturally be filled with scorching water, were it not for industrial pumps that facilitate the mining of silver, zinc, lead, and other minerals in the caves.


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